• حلقة بحث

    A Comparison Between Two Models of Computation

    إعداد
    خالد اسماعيل
    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    حبيب عيسى

    Ever since ancient times, mankind have adapted numerous ways to do their computation.

    Everything started out when ancient sheep keepers wanted to ensure that at the end of a long

    workday, no sheep were lost. And they’ve done that by counting the sheep using stones. And

    arithmetic was born. As the human race developed, so did its need of computation. And the

    formulas they used in order to express the world around them got more and more complicated.

    Until the point where they started building special purpose machines to solve these

    computational problems around them. And the abstract concept these machines were built on is

    what’s known as the “Computational Model” or “Model of Computation”.

    Early models of computation include Babbage’s “Difference Engine”. Which was a mechanical

    device capable of basic arithmetic operations, such as addition and subtraction. Although addition

    is a relatively easy task for the human mind compared to, say, solving third-order differential

    equations, but the difference engine was very, very fast. Simply because the position of a node in

    the Difference Engine, unlike a thought cannot be misinterpreted. After that, the second

    generation of the Difference Engine came about. And this one was capable of solving ballistics

    equations. Now, we’re going somewhere.

    And of course, how can we forget about the famous Enigma code! and the genius who cracked

    it, Alan Turing. What really happened is that Turing discovered the flaw in the Enigma

    encryption scheme. But the heavy duty work was left for Bombe, a powerful computer that

    Turing built in order to cope with the enormous computations involved in cracking the code.

    In the present, different discoveries led to different models of computation. Such as the Turing

    machine, cellular automaton and others. Although all of them have been proven to be equivalent,

    some are better at certain tasks than others. furthermore, some gave birth to entirely new scientific

    concepts. This does beg the question; why do we use so many models of computation? What

    advances did this diversity lead to? And most of all, is there some superior model that can be used

    instead of all the others combined?

    In this seminar, we shall introduce some of the most famous models of computation. Later, we

    will look at different comparisons between these models, to show the strengths and weaknesses

    of each model. Hopefully, we will be able to know when to use each model, and therefore choose

    the optimal model for several scientific fields.

    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    حبيب عيسى

    A Comparison Between Two Models of Computation

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث

    Artificial Neural Networks

    إعداد
    جابر اديب
    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف

    Artificial Intelligence known as AI was officially founded at a conference on

    Dartmouth College’s campus in 1956. The conference included John McCarthy,

    Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, Arthur Samuel and Herbert Simon, who became the

    leaders of AI research for many decades.

    AI spread broadly since 1960 and was heavily funded in different countries. During

    its evolving, AI showed in many forms, some were linked to each other and some

    were independent branches of it. In the 1980s one of AI’s first successful forms

    emerged, expert systems, which are computer systems that emulate the decision

    making ability of a human expert to solve complex problems for example.

    In the 1990s and early 21 st century AI reached a great level of success due to several

    factors: the increasing computational power of computers, a greater emphasis on

    solving specific sub problems, the creation of new ties between AI and other fields

    working on similar problems and a new commitment by researchers to solid

    mathematical methods and rigorous scientific standards.

    Throughout its success AI fulfilled a lot of achievements, such as: deep blue, the

    chess playing computer which beaten Garry Kasparov, a reigning world chess

    champion. IBM’s question answering system, Watson, defeated two of the best

    jeopardy champions by a significant margin in a Jeopardy! quiz show. A 3D body-

    motion interface provider became available for the Xbox 360 and the Xbox One, the

    Kinect. A lot more became available.

    AI provided a lot of products and creations that implemented reasoning, problem

    solving capability, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and

    more.

    One of AI’s applications was Artificial Neural Networks which is a simulation of a

    biological humanoid neural network or in other words a simulation of a humanoid

    brain, so it’s able to learn, to solve mathematical or complex problems by itself

    starting from simpler ones and to make use the capabilities of its artificial

    components to the maximum.

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of an artificial neural network??

    Could we keep track on its every action and keep it under control??

    Before answering these questions let’s take a deep look into artificial neural

    networks and their specifications.

    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف

    Artificial Neural Networks

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث
    98%

    Locomotion study principles and their applications

    إعداد
    احمد ناصر
    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    نائل داؤد

    Isaac Asimov put four refined laws to protect the mankind from the intelligence

    generations of robots. We will need to apply those rules very soon to protect ourselves

    from any danger from robots.

    - Law Zero: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow

    humanity to come to harm.

    - Law One: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction,

    allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher

    order law.

    - Law Two: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except

    where such orders would conflict with a higher order law.

    - Law Three: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection

    does not conflict with a higher order law.

    The term robotics refers to the study and use of robots. The term was

    first adopted by Asimov in 1941 through his short science fiction story,

    Runaround.

    Based on the Robotics Institute of America (RIA) definition: "A robot is

    a reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material,

    parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions

    for the performance of a variety of tasks.

    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    نائل داؤد

    Locomotion study principles and their applications

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث

    Does the Dark Matter really exist-

    إعداد
    مجد حمدان
    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    غسان الحايك

    Astrophysicists now know that 80% of the matter in the universe is `Dark Matter' which is the most vexing mystery OF ALL THE MANY MYSTERIES of modern astronomy. Most astronomers believe in the existence of the Dark Matter and some are not The Dark Matter problem arose because of a mismatch in the masses of galaxies and larger cosmic structures. The constituents of these systems—stars and gas in the case of galaxies, gas and galaxies in the case of galaxy clusters—move about but do not escape, because they are checked by the gravitational pull from the rest of the system. The laws of physics tell us how much mass has to be present to counterbalance the motions and thereby prevent the dispersal of the system. Disconcertingly, the tally of mass that astronomers actually observe falls far short of that. I will summarize how the astronomers calculate its mass and explain why some of them disbelieve in the existence of Dark Matter by searching for mistakes in the calculation method of dark matter.

    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    غسان الحايك

    Does the Dark Matter really exist-

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث

    دراسة عرض منطقة العبور للطالب علي بسام محمد

    إعداد
    علي محمد
    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    غسان الحايك

    يقدم هذ البحث دراسة نظرية لحساب عرض منطقة النضوب في أنصاف النواقل الهجينة, وذلك انطلاقاً من المبادئ لنصل الى مرادنا من البحث

    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    غسان الحايك

    دراسة عرض منطقة العبور للطالب

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث

    AUTISM

    إعداد
    علي الصالح
    الحادي عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    وفاء صبيحة

    What are the signs of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?? and how could we know that a person may have ASD?!?

    How is ASD diagnosed?

    What causes ASD? do vaccines cause ASD?!

    Is ASD treatable? and how??

    And how can we help a child who has ASD?

    الحادي عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    وفاء صبيحة

    AUTISM

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث

    تدريع الإشعاع النووي

    إعداد
    علي يوسف
    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    غسان الحايك

    يهدف هذا البحث إلى التعرف على أشكال تدريع الإشعاع النووي وكيف تؤثر هذه الدروع في تخفيف التعرض للجرعات الإشعاعية وكيف تتم حساباتها.

    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    غسان الحايك

    تدريع الإشعاع النووي

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث

    غزوة الخندق

    إعداد
    ثراء العمار
    الحادي عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    دريد قادرو

    برزت منذ القديم الفتوحات العسكرية ... في عصور ما قبل الإسلام حتى وبعده ... ومنها طبعا غزوات الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم ... الفتوحات الإسلامية ...ومعارك الدفاع عن الوجود والدفاع عن الكيان والإسلام والكرامة...

    ....غزوة الخندق ... غزوة تجلى فيها دور العقل ورجاحته ... أعطتنا  مثالا واضحا وواقعا عن مدى أهمية العقل وتخطيطه في الفوز على الخصوم مهما كانت أعدادهم تفوق أعدادنا ... و كم كان لأخذ الحيطة والحذر دورا هاما فيها ولولاه لكانت فشلت هذه الحرب وكذلك أهمية الثقة في الحرب ... وعدة دروس أخرى مستفادة من مواقف للرسول والصحابة وغيرهم فما عي العوامل التي ساهمت بفوز المسلمين وخسارة المشركين ؟؟ هل أن غزوة الحندق كانت دموية وراح على أثرها الضحايا والمنكوبين ؟؟ أم أنها استخدمت نوعا جديدا من القتال وحقنت دماء المسلمين ؟؟ ما الدروس التي نقلتها غزوة الخندق من صفات الرسول والصحابة رضوان الله عليهم ؟؟ الإجابات على تلك الأسئلة كلها سنراها في ذلك البحث وذلك بالتعرف أيضا على مراحل سير الغزوة والدروس المستفادة من الغزوة ....

    الحادي عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    دريد قادرو

    غزوة الخندق

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث
    98%

    nantenna

    إعداد
    جعفر محفوض
    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    محمود نوح

    The development of the communication systems comes from the wide application of these systems in our daily life . Antennas are found around us in abundance when we are in the midst of communicating either locally or globally via radio frequencies or microwave technologies. Since the inception of classical electromagnetics to the wonders of modern electromagnetism antennas in any size or form have and are still working diligently to uphold their purpose,that is, to convert the electromagnetic energy available in free space into confined electric signals and vice versa. As the telecommunication industry is reaching new technological heights, antennas in any size or form have and are still working diligently to uphold their purpose,that is, to convert the electromagnetic energy available in free space into confined electric signals and vice versa. As the telecommunication industry is reaching new technological heights, the demand for energy consumption is also surging,resulting in an increase in environmental problems in the form of carbon emissions One proposed solution is the concept of “green communication,” which primarily aims at improving the energy efficiency while reducing the CO2 emissions and energy consumption of communication networks In order to realize this concept, researchers are now persuaded on designing antennas by utilizing the electromagnetic spectrum in the high frequency bands (THz), which fulfills the bandwidth hunger requirements of smart devices, provides low cost designs with high connectivity, and satisfies the consumer needs while keeping the environment clean and energy consumption to a minimum. The antennas designed in the THz regime are given the name of optical antennas. And this kind of antenna's applications wasn't just in the communication but it omit this edge and have applications in the solar systems to absorb the light waves . and because of it’s range that idecate to fabricate it in nanno dimension

    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    محمود نوح

    nantenna

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث

    الإعجاز العدديّ في القرآن الكريم

    إعداد
    تيماء بطيح
    الحادي عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    دريد قادرو

    أغلبنا اليوم يعتقد بأنَّ الدين منفصل عن العلم عامة و عن الرياضيات خاصة ,و معظمهم اليوم ممن يجهل القرآن يستدل على القرآن شاهداً بأنَّ القرآن الذي يحوي نصف علم الكون_ إن لم يكن كله_ ليس فيه ما يدل على الرياضيات أو ما يدعونا للعمل بها , و هم يجهلون أنَّ القرآن الكريم يحوي على أسس الرياضيات بل و تفاصيلها .

    *يا ترى ما هي أهم هذه الأسس ؟

    *و هل كان للرياضيات حصة كبيرة من القرآن الكريم  ؟

    و بما أنَّ القرآن يحتوي على أسس الرياضيات و تفاصيلها الصغيرة

    * فكيف و أين ذكرت هذه الأسس في القرآن الكريم ؟

    *و هل هذه المواضع ذكرَت المسائل الرياضية البحتة أم كان للرياضيات ارتباطات بعلوم أخرى؟

    الحادي عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    دريد قادرو

    الإعجاز العدديّ في القرآن الكريم

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث

    تطبيقات فعل دوبلر

    إعداد
    باسل الشوارب
    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    محمود نوح

    لطالما نلاحظ عندما يقترب مننا قطار، وهو يصدر صوت البوق، أن صوته يزداد حدةً، أما عندما يبتعد عنا فإن صوته يزداد غلظةً. ما سبب هذه الظاهرة؟ وهل تنطبق أيضاً على الضوء مثلما تنطبق على الصوت؟ هل لهذه الظاهرة البسيطة، والتي نتعرض لها يوميا، أهمية لنستفيد منها بتطبيقات مختلفة في حياتنا؟

    الثاني عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    محمود نوح

    تطبيقات فعل دوبلر

    التفاصيل
  • حلقة بحث

    رحلة القرآن الكريم

    إعداد
    أليسار الحائك علي
    الحادي عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    دريد قادرو

    إن النزول التدريجي للقرآن الكريم كان يفرض كتابة القرآن في صحف متفرقة ومقطعة، ولا شك أنها لم تكن مجموعة ومؤلفة في كتاب له دفتان في بداية الأمر.

     فمتى جمعت وألف بينها؟

    ومن قام بجمعها؟ وكيف تم جمعها؟ وكيف تمّت عملية كتابته وتشكيله وتنقيطه؟ ومن قام بها؟

    هذا ما سوف نجيب عنه ونتوسع في شرح أفكاره خلال فصول وفقرات بحثي هذا، على أمل توضيح هذه الأفكار وشرحها بشكل يسير مفهوم وواضح.......

    الحادي عشر
    2015/2016

    بإشراف
    دريد قادرو

    رحلة القرآن الكريم

    التفاصيل